Getting started with Hive with Kerberos.

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Apache Hive is a powerful data warehousing application built on top of Hadoop; it enables you to access your data using Hive QL, a language that is similar to SQL. Install Hive on your client machine(s) from which you submit jobs; you do not need to install it on the nodes in your Hadoop cluster. If Kerberos authentication is used, authentication is supported between the Thrift client and HiveServer2, and between HiveServer2 and secure HDFS.

If you configure HiveServer2 to use Kerberos authentication, HiveServer2 acquires a Kerberos ticket during start-up. HiveServer2 requires a principal and keytab file specified in the configuration. The client applications (for example JDBC or Beeline) must get a valid Kerberos ticket before initiating a connection to HiveServer2.

Grant Permissions to user groups to access hive.

Login to the server and create a role. If these roles are not created then we get permission (Privileges) Issues.

Issue as below.

Error: Error while compiling statement: FAILED: SemanticException No valid privileges
 Required privileges for this query: Server=server1->action=*; (state=42000,code=40000)

Here is how to grant permissions to hive group, so that you can access it.

[sas@waepprrkb004 root]$  beeline -u \
                    "jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com:10000/default;principal=\
                        hive/hive-server.server.com@XYZ.DOMAIN.COM"

0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com> create role admin;
1 row affected
0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com> show roles;
+--------+--+
|  role  |
+--------+--+
| admin  |
+--------+--+

0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com> GRANT ROLE admin TO GROUP hive;
0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com> GRANT ALL ON DATABASE default TO ROLE admin;

Here is the complete output after the permissions are granted.

[sas@waepprrkb004 root]$  beeline -u \
    "jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com:10000/default;principal=\
    hive/hive-server.server.com@XYZ.DOMAIN.COM"
scan complete in 1ms
Connecting to jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com:10000/default;principal=
                                            hive/hive-server.server.com@XYZ.DOMAIN.COM
Connected to: Apache Hive (version 1.1.0-cdh5.4.5)
Driver: Hive JDBC (version 1.1.0-cdh5.4.5)
Transaction isolation: TRANSACTION_REPEATABLE_READ
Beeline version 1.1.0-cdh5.4.5 by Apache Hive
0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com> show databases;
+----------------+--+
| database_name  |
+----------------+--+
| default        |
+----------------+--+
1 row selected (0.134 seconds)
0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com> show roles;
+--------+--+
|  role  |
+--------+--+
| admin  |
+--------+--+
1 row selected (0.063 seconds)
0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com> use default;
No rows affected (0.05 seconds)
0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com> show tables;
+------------+--+
|  tab_name  |
+------------+--+
| sample_07  |
| sample_08  |
+------------+--+
2 rows selected (0.08 seconds)
0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com>

Adding New Roles and Groups in Hive.

Before we start accessing the data, we need to give users permission.

  1. Create a role.
  2. Assign role some permissions (SELECT [readonly], INSERT [rw], ALL[all]).
  3. Add a group to the newly create role.

Creating a new role.

First we create roles which we later give permissions to.

0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com> CREATE ROLE admin;
0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com> CREATE ROLE readonly;

Assign role permissions.

We are assigning permission to a role readonly to a database (default)

0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com> GRANT SELECT ON DATABASE default TO ROLE readonly;

Adding a new active directory group to role.

Now we assign the role readonly to a group server-user-access-group. Here server-user-access-group is an Active Directory group which is sync with Linux using SSSD.

0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com> GRANT ROLE readonly TO GROUP server-user-access-group;

Adding new External tables

Grant permission to HDFS URI to access the AVRO data.

grant all on uri 'hdfs://nameservice1/data/location/hdfs/some_data/ahmed/' to role admin;     

Creating external table.

create external table ahmed-data partitioned by (partition_val1 String,partition_val2 String) \
    stored as avro location '/data/location/hdfs/some_data/ahmed/' \
    TBLPROPERTIES ('avro.schema.url'='data/location/hdfs/some_data_schema/v1/ahmed_schema.avsc');

Alter table to partition it.

alter table ahmed-data add partition (partition_val1="2015", partition_val2="07");

Testing Setup.

Logging as hive user to giver permission to a specific group.

[root@edge-gw-server keytabs]# beeline -u \
            "jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com:10000/default;principal=\
            hive/hive-server.server.com@XYZ.DOMAIN.COM"
scan complete in 2ms
Connecting to jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com:10000/default;principal=
                                                    hive/hive-server.server.com@XYZ.DOMAIN.COM
Connected to: Apache Hive (version 1.1.0-cdh5.4.5)
Driver: Hive JDBC (version 1.1.0-cdh5.4.5)
Transaction isolation: TRANSACTION_REPEATABLE_READ
Beeline version 1.1.0-cdh5.4.5 by Apache Hive
0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com>
0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com> create role admin;
0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com> create role readonly;

Checking for roles in hive.

0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com> show roles;
+-----------+--+
|   role    |
+-----------+--+
| admin     |
| readonly  |
+-----------+--+
2 rows selected (0.349 seconds)

Grant readonly role to server-user-access-group group. (But still we have not given permission to role readonly we do that in next step)

0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com> grant role readonly to group server-user-access-group;
No rows affected (0.04 seconds)

Assigning role readonly select permission on the default database.

0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com> grant select on database default to role readonly;
No rows affected (0.049 seconds)
0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com> show role grant group server-user-access-group;
+-----------+---------------+-------------+----------+--+
|   role    | grant_option  | grant_time  | grantor  |
+-----------+---------------+-------------+----------+--+
| readonly  | false         | NULL        | --       |
+-----------+---------------+-------------+----------+--+
1 row selected (0.062 seconds)
0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com> !quit
Closing: 0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com:10000/default;principal=
                                                    hive/hive-server.server.com@XYZ.DOMAIN.COM

Now checking for permission for user ahmed-user, since the user is not part of server-user-access-group he will still not be able to access the data.

[root@edge-gw-server keytabs]# su ahmed-user
[ahmed-user@edge-gw-server keytabs]$ cd ~
[ahmed-user@edge-gw-server ~]$ kinit -kt ahmed-user_new.keytab ahmed-user@ABC.DOMAIN.COM
[ahmed-user@edge-gw-server ~]$ beeline -u \
                "jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com:10000/default;principal=\
                 hive/hive-server.server.com@XYZ.DOMAIN.COM"
scan complete in 2ms
Connecting to jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com:10000/default;principal=
                                                    hive/hive-server.server.com@XYZ.DOMAIN.COM
Connected to: Apache Hive (version 1.1.0-cdh5.4.5)
Driver: Hive JDBC (version 1.1.0-cdh5.4.5)
Transaction isolation: TRANSACTION_REPEATABLE_READ
Beeline version 1.1.0-cdh5.4.5 by Apache Hive
0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com> show tables;
+-----------+--+
| tab_name  |
+-----------+--+
+-----------+--+
No rows selected (1.382 seconds)
0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com> !quit
Closing: 0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com:10000/default;principal=
                                                    hive/hive-server.server.com@XYZ.DOMAIN.COM
[ahmed-user@edge-gw-server ~]$ exit
exit

Now again logging into hive superuser to grant permission to a group which ahmed-user user is part of.

[root@edge-gw-server keytabs]# kinit -kt hive.keytab hive/hive-server.server.com@XYZ.DOMAIN.COM                                             
[root@edge-gw-server keytabs]# beeline -u \
                "jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com:10000/default;principal=\
                 hive/hive-server.server.com@XYZ.DOMAIN.COM"
scan complete in 2ms
Connecting to jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com:10000/default;principal=
                                                    hive/hive-server.server.com@XYZ.DOMAIN.COM
Connected to: Apache Hive (version 1.1.0-cdh5.4.5)
Driver: Hive JDBC (version 1.1.0-cdh5.4.5)
Transaction isolation: TRANSACTION_REPEATABLE_READ
Beeline version 1.1.0-cdh5.4.5 by Apache Hive
0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com> grant role readonly to group ahmed-user-access-group;
No rows affected (0.332 seconds)
0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com> !quit
Closing: 0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com:10000/default;principal=
                                                    hive/hive-server.server.com@XYZ.DOMAIN.COM

Login as ahmed-user user. Now we can see the tables.

[root@edge-gw-server keytabs]# su ahmed-user
[ahmed-user@edge-gw-server keytabs]$ cd ~
[ahmed-user@edge-gw-server ~]$ kinit -kt ahmed-user_new.keytab ahmed-user@ABC.DOMAIN.COM                                                                                 
[ahmed-user@edge-gw-server ~]$ beeline -u \
                    "jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com:10000/default;principal=\
                    hive/hive-server.server.com@XYZ.DOMAIN.COM"
scan complete in 2ms
Connecting to jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com:10000/default;principal=
                                                    hive/hive-server.server.com@XYZ.DOMAIN.COM
Connected to: Apache Hive (version 1.1.0-cdh5.4.5)
Driver: Hive JDBC (version 1.1.0-cdh5.4.5)
Transaction isolation: TRANSACTION_REPEATABLE_READ
Beeline version 1.1.0-cdh5.4.5 by Apache Hive
0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com> show tables;
+------------+--+
|  tab_name  |
+------------+--+
| ahmed-data |
| sample_07  |
| sample_08  |
+------------+--+
8 rows selected (0.183 seconds)
0: jdbc:hive2://hive-server.server.com> 

Test Complete.

Written on October 20, 2015